The modulators or factors responsible for changing the temperament of human being are of 2 types:
Internal Factors (Internal environmental factors).
External factors (External environmental factors).
1. Internal Factors (Internal environmental factors):
These are the factors which influence the temperament of human being at the time of its formation and development in the uterus. The foetal development is the outcome of interaction between the gamets (sperm and ova) of the parents. Gamets, undoubtedly, transfer parental characters to the offspring. Unani
physicians are of the opinion that some active forces (Quwwate Mughayyirae Oola and Musawwirah) in utero, finalize the morphological and biochemical composition of the foetus in the light of temperament of the gamets.
Any abnormal change in the Maaddae Manwiah (gamets) may alter the temperament of the foetus because of which different types of congenital deformities are developed in the foetus. For example, if the semen or gamets is less or more in quantity, foetus will not be developed properly. If Maddae Manwiah is less in quantity any organ maybe smaller in size as ” Microcephally”. Similarly, if the quantity of Mani is more, any organ of the body may enlarge as “Macrocephally.”
There are so many kinds of congenital diseases that develop in child due to any disturbance in the genetic material (chromosomes and genes) in the uterus like,
· Congenital rubella syndrome
· Down’s syndrome
· PKU (phenylketonurea)
Till now, over 2300 hereditary diseases have been identified.
2. External Environmental Factors:
Age, Air, Season, Habitat (Residence), Occupation and Habits.
Age: Age of an individual is the factor which influences the temperament directly. Every person has specific temperament in different phases of life which is responsible for health and diseases of an individual. Because of
abnormal changes in this temperament, so many diseases may develop in the body.
Air (Wind): It is one of the most important external environmental factors, responsible for influencing temperament of an individual. Although there are so many kinds of winds blow in the atmosphere, but, only four winds i.e. Northerly (cold dry), Southerly (hot moist), Easterly (equable temperament) and Westerly (cold dry or near to equable) are of great importance from medical point of view. Because of having their specific Mizaj, each wind is suitable for the person having opposite Mizaj and harmful or not suitable for the persons having same temperament as that of the wind and may cause diseases in the body accordingly. Northerly wind having cold dry temperament may cause diseases having cold dry temperament. Same like this, remaining winds tend to develop the diseases having same temperament as that of the winds.
Season: It is also an important factor which may affect the temperament of human being. There are four types of seasons in the year. Each season has its specific Mizaj because of which it affects the temperament of an individual. If the temperament of human being and season become same, diseases having same temperament as that of the season and of human being may be developed. That’s why; Dam (blood) related diseases occur in Rabi,’ diseases related to Safra develop in the Saif (Summer) and diseases related to Sauda prevail in the Kharif, while Balghami diseases occur in the Winter season. The diseases occurring in the end and in the beginning of the season are related with both pre and proceeding season.
Habitat (residence/country/city): Habitat of an inhabitant exerts its effect directly on human life by its specific temperament. For example, Northern countries with cold and dry temperament, Southern countries with hot and moist, Eastern countries with Mo’tadil temperament and Western countries with Mo’tadil mail ba Rutoobat (moderate tilt toward rutoobat) which is similar to the temperament of Mosame Kharif. Because of specific Mizaj (temperament/ climate) of habitat, some specific diseases, related to the temperament of the same, are developed.
For example, Inhabitants of hot placesare generally of soft and delicate constitution of body, complexion of the body and hair are black. Similarly, inhabitants of cold places are usually strong and brave. Because, in cold temperament Hararate Ghariziah resides inside the body resulting in good digestion of inhabitants. If the temperament of these countries becomes damp or moist along with cold, persons living in these countries will become fleshy and fatty with inconspicuous veins (invisible).
Inhabitants of damp countries are distinctly fleshy and fatty with soft and smooth skin.
In dry countries, both winter and summer seasons are in their extreme condition, because of which temperaments of inhabitants of these places become dry, as a result their skin becomes rough and cracked. Their brain tends to be dry, because of which so many abnormal consequences may develop in the form of diseases.
Residents of high altitudes are generally brave, strong and long lived. It is because of pure air having cold temperament which is present at these places.